The British Crown assumes direct rule of India.
At start of World War I, India unites behind Britain, but as war drags on, discontent builds.
Britain passes Rowlatt Act, enabling authorities to dispense with juries, and even trials, in dealing with agitators; in response, Mohandas K. Gandhi (later known as Mahatma Gandhi) organises the first civil-disobedience campaign.
Amritsar Massacre takes place in Jallianwala Bagh, enclosed park in northwestern city of Amritsar (Punjab state), home to Golden Temple, a site sacred to Sikhs; hundreds of Indian nationalists killed and thousands wounded when British troops open fire; Gandhi responds with civil-disobedience campaigns.
Imperial conferences concerning status of India lead to Government of India Act of 1935, providing for election of entirely Indian provincial governments.
Congress party, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, wins well over half the seats and forms governments in 7 of 11 provinces.
Gandhi launches non-violent Quit India movement after British Government rejects his offer to cooperate with Great Britain in World War II if Britain will grant immediate independence; Britain responds by outlawing Congress party and jailing Gandhi until 1944.
Muslim-Hindu violence erupts in Calcutta and spreads throughout India, lasting into 1947; hundreds of thousands on both sides are killed.

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee offers self-government to India, but warns that if no agreement is reached between Congress Party and Muslim League, Britain will determine apportionment of power between two groups; Congress Party reluctantly agrees to creation of Muslim State of Pakistan; future of Kashmir is not resolved.
British government announces plan for transfer of power to India and creation of Pakistan.

India gains independence; Pakistan established as separate dominion; Nehru gives "Tryst with Destiny" speech; Nehru later becomes Prime Minister of India and Jinnah Governor General of Pakistan.

Partition leaves large minorities of Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan and Muslims in India; widespread hostilities erupt among these communities; some 12-15 million flee across borders seeking safety; by late 1947, communal strife claims more than 500,000 lives.
While holding prayer and pacification meeting in New Delhi, Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by Hindu fanatic angered by Gandhi's solicitude for Muslims.

Warfare erupts between India and Pakistan over conflicting claims to jurisdiction over princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Pakistan leader Jinnah dies; Liaquat Ali Khan succeeds him as Prime Minister.
India adopts constitution and on January 26, 1950, becomes a republic.
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan assassinated in Rawalpindi; his death leaves a five-year
leadership void.
Regions throughout India demand linguistic states; violent language riots erupt in Bombay.
General Iskander Mirza becomes first President of Pakistan.

Under Linguistic States Reorganisation, India reapportioned into 14 states and six centrally administered territories; each states is to embrace population speaking same language.
President Mirza of Pakistan abrogates constitution and grants power to army under General Muhammed Ayub Khan, who subsequently assumes presidential powers, abolishing office of Prime Minister and ruling by decree; Khan rules until 1969.
In response to calls for linguistic partition, Delhi government divides Bombay into states of
Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Ongoing border dispute leads Chinese to launch massive offensive against Ladakh in Kashmir and in areas on northeastern Indian border; after gaining some territory, the Chinese announce cease-fire November 21.

India-Pakistan dispute over Kashmir intensifies.
Fighting between India and Pakistan breaks out in Rann of Kutch frontier area and in Kashmir.
Pakistan Army units cross border into India, igniting second India-Pakistan War.
Indian troops launch attack aimed at Lahore (Pakistan); warfare ends September 23 with an United Nations ceasefire.
Indian Prime Minister Shastri dies; after bitter debate within Congress Party, Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, succeeds him as Prime Minister.
Congress Party splits into left-wing New Congress Party, under Indira Gandhi, and right-wing Old
Congress Party.
Rioting and terrorism by Maoists erupts; situation especially serious in West Bengal; Pakistan government tries to suppress Bengali uprising in East Pakistan; millions of Bengali refugees flee East Pakistan into India; India supports demands of Awami League, organisation of Pakistani Bengalis, for autonomy of East Pakistan.
New Congress party wins election; Indira Gandhi elected Indian Prime Minister again.
War breaks out between India and Pakistan on two fronts, East Pakistan and Kashmir; Indian forces advance into East Pakistan; war ends two weeks later with creation of independent Bangladesh to replace
East Pakistan.
India becomes world's sixth nuclear power by exploding underground nuclear device in Thar Desert in Rajasthan state.
Opponents accuse Gandhi of corruption.
Indira Gandhi found guilty of illegal practices during 1971 campaign; she refuses to resign.
Gandhi declares state of emergency; all civil rights "suspended" and press censored; in major Indian cities thousands of "subversive" politicians, students, journalists, lawyers jailed.
Gandhi unveils Twenty-Point Program of economic reforms, including radical land reforms; in late July Gandhi extends the emergency rule "indefinitely".
Supreme Court overrules Gandhi's June 12 conviction.
Growing opposition to Gandhi and her son Sanjay, leader of Youth Congress; Sanjay's vigorous slum-clearance (without adequate resettlement) in Old Delhi has made many lower-class Muslims lose faith in Gandhi regime.
Indira Gandhi ends the emergency rule and calls for national elections.
Janata Party wins nationwide parliamentary elections, ending 30 years of uninterrupted Congress power; Indira Gandhi loses both seat in Parliament and position as Prime Minister.

Compiled and written by Leslie Stainton, University Musical Society of the University of Michigan.